N-ACETYL L-CARNITINE (ALCAR) normally produced in the mitochondria, is a precursor of acetyl-Coenzyme A in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. ALCAR’s ability to attenuate oxidative stress and prevent mitochondrial ATP depletion is why ALCAR is considered a neuronal support compound. ALCAR protects against betaamyloid neurotoxicity and significantly reduces oxidative damage to RNA. Electron microscope studies of the hippocampus in old rats showed that ALCAR and or R-Alpha Lipoic acid reversed age-associated mitochondrial structural decay. Think of CogniFactors for your patients with mild to moderate memory impairment.
PHOSPHATIDYLSERINE (PS) enhances cholinergic function, restores Acetylcholine release (in aging rats), and prevents age-related reduction in dendritric spine density in the rat hippocampus. Studies have shown PS to restore Protein Kinase C activity. PS has demonstrated some usefulness in treating cognitive impairment and age-associated memory impairment. It is also useful in treating those patients with well known degenerative memory impairment conditions.
NATTOKINASE is created by the bacterial fermentation of soy beans from the bacterium Bacillus Natto. Dr. Hiroyuki Sumi discovered this enzyme, “The enzyme of enzymes.” Nattokinase functions as a fibrinolytic. Daily use reduces the risk of thrombotic events that may otherwise threaten our patients’ lives (CVA, MI PE, etc.). Nattokinase enhances normal circulation and oxygen perfusion to tissues . BACOPA MONNIERA has antioxidant properties and has a long traditional Ayurvedic use for memory enhancement. Rat studies show that Bacopa increases learning skills and visual information processing. Human studies show that Bacopa decreases the rate of forgetting and improves mood.
DIMETHYL AMINO ETHANOL (DMAE) is made naturally in the brain. It has been shown to alleviate behavioral problems and normalize activity levels and attention. DMAE increases attention span, decreases aggressive behavior, improves learning ability, and occasionally shows an increase in IQ (70% of those with deficient attention span). DMAE inhibits and reverses cross-linking of proteins. Removal of age spots (lipofuscin pigment) from skin and neurons is enhanced. Anxiety is reduced and alertness is enhanced. Motivation is enhanced and apathy is reduced.
DMAE improves interhemispheric flow of information in the corpus callosum, thereby improving creativity and verbal fluency. Sleep need is reduced by 1 hour after 6 weeks of use. Dreams become more vivid and sleep is sounder and more refreshing. DMAE enhances Acetylcholine, Choline, and RNA levels within the brain. DMAE has a superior ability to cross the blood-brain barrier.
GINKGO BILOBA EXTRACT (GBE) is widely used as a dietary supplement for increasing cognitive function in elderly people. Its action is through its enhanced circulation (vasodilation) effects and its neuroprotective antioxidant qualities. Quality of GBE varies widely. In 1999 consumer labs showed that nearly 25% of GBE brands tested did not meet their label claims of expected chemical marker compounds despite claims to being standardized.
VINPOCETINE increases cerebral blood flow and metabolism. Vinpocetine comes from the plant Vinca minor and has a long standing use as an aide to cognitive enhancement. Studies confirm its neuroprotective and antioxidant properties. Vinpocetine may have anticonvulsant benefits.
ALPHA R LIPOIC ACID has strong antioxidant protective qualities and enhances antioxidant recycling. ARLA also supports enhanced mitochondrial metabolism through its support of the Krebs Citric Acid cycle and ATP production. This antioxidant is both fat and water soluble. ARLA may slow brain aging and have anti-aging benefits. ARLA has neuroprotective benefits. ARLA is the biologically active form of lipoic acid and is considerably stronger than synthetic ALA (alpha RS Lipoic Acid, racemic mixture).
HUPERZINE A from the moss Huperzia serrata, is a potent neuroprotective agent. Huperzine A gives support for healthy cognitive function. Balancing Glutamatergic function protects against Glutamate toxicity. Huperzine A prevents breakdown of acetylcholine by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase enzyme activity.
1. Dhitavat S, Ortiz D, Shea TB, Rivera ER. Center for Neurobiology and Neurodegeneration Research, University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, Massachusetts 01854, USA. ThomasShea@umi.edu Neurochem Res 2002 June;27(6):501-5
2. Memory loss in old rats is associated with brain mitochondrial decay and RNA/DNA oxidation: partial reversal by feeding acetyl-L-carnitine and/or R-alphalipoic acid. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2002 Feb 19.99(4):2356-61.
3. PDR for Nutritional Supplements, 1st Ed. Medical Economics/Thompson Healthcare, 2001.
4. PDR for Herbal Medicines, 1st Ed. Medical Economics/Thompson Healthcare, 1998.
5. Sumi H, Hamada H, Tsushima H, Mihara H, Muraki H. A novel fibrinolytic enzyme (nattokinase) in the vegetable cheese Natto; a typical and popular soybean food in the Japanese diet. Experiential 1987 Oct 15;43(10):1110-1.
6. Kleijnen J, Knipschild P. Ginkgo biloba for cerebral insufficiency. Br. J Clinical Pharmocol 34:352-8, 1992.
7. Grabel E. Cerebral insufficiency – The influence of Ginkgo biloba extract EGB 761 on basic parameters of mental performance. Placebo-controlled, randomized double-blind study with computer-aided measurement. Fortsch Med 110(5):73-6, 1992.
8. Roodenrys S. Chronic effects of Brahmi (Bacopa monniera) on human memory. Univ. of Wollongong, Woolongong, Australia. Neuropsychopharmacology, 2002 Aug:27(92):279-81.
9. Stough C. The chronic effects of an extract of Bacopa monniera (Brahmi)on cognitive function in healthy human subjects. Psychopharmacology (Berl)2001 Aug:156(4):481-4.
10. Russo A. Free Radical scavenging capacity and protective effect of Bacopa monniera on DNA damage. Phytother Res. 2003 Sep:17(8):870-5.
11. Coleman N, et al. DMAE in the treatment of hyperactive children. Psychosomatics 17:68-72, 1976.
12. Oettinger L. The use of DMAE in the treatment of disorders of behavior in children. J Pediatrics. 53:671-675, 1958.13.
13. Cedar G, et al. Effects of 2-Dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE) on the metabolism of choline in plasma. J Neurochemistry. 30:1293-1296, 1978.
14. Zs-Nagy, et al. On the role of cross-linking of cellular proteins in aging. Mech Agi Dev 14:245-251, 1980.
15. Packer L, Trischler HJ, Wessel K. Neuroprotection by the metabolic antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid. Free Rad Biol Med. 1997:22;359-378.
16. Skolnick AA. Old Chinese herbal medicine used for fever yields possible new Alzheimer disease therapy. News. JAMA 277(10):776, 1997.
17. Xu SS et al. Efficacy of tablet huperzine A on memory, cognition and behavior in Alzheimer’s disease. Acts Pharmacologica Sinica 16:391-5, 1995.