Characterized by enlarged ovaries with multiple small cysts. Symptoms include amenorrhea (absence of menstrual period), infertility, hirsutism (unwanted hair growth in women), and enlarged polycystic ovaries.
Polycystic ovary disease is an endocrine disorder, which means normal hormone cycles are interrupted. Insulin resistance also seems to be a key feature in polycystic ovarian syndrome. In addition to other hormones, insulin helps regulate ovarian function. High levels of insulin can contribute to lack of ovulation, high androgen levels, infertility, and early pregnancy loss.
- Abnormal, irregular, or scanty (very light or infrequent) menstrual periods
- Absent periods , usually (but not always) after having one or more normal menstrual periods during puberty (secondary amenorrhea)
- Weight gain, even obesity
- Insulin resistance and diabetes
- Increased hair growth; distribution of body hair may be in a male pattern
- Virilization -- development of male sex characteristics in a female. This may include an increase in body hair, facial hair, a deepening of the voice, male-pattern baldness, and clitoral enlargement.
- Decreased breast size
- Aggravation of acne
Topic: N-acetylcysteine May Induce Ovulation in Women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome
Keywords: POLYCYSTIC OVARIAN SYNDROME, PCOS, FERTILITY, OVULATION - N-acetylcysteine, N-acetyl cysteine, NAC, Clomid, Clomiphene Citrate
Reference: "N-Acetyl cysteine and clomiphene citrate for induction of ovulation in polycystic ovary syndrome: a cross-over trial," Badawy A, State O, et al, Acta Obstet Gynecol Scanda, 2007; 86(2): 218-22. (Address: Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org ).
In a study involving 573 women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), supplementation with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in addition to the fertility drug, clomiphene citrate, was found to induce ovulation more effectively than treatment with clomiphene citrate alone. All of the subjects were treated with clomiphene citrate (50 mg tablets, twice a day) for one menstrual cycle, after which 470 of the subjects were treated with clomiphene citrate plus N-acetylcysteine (1,200 mg/day orally for 5 days starting on day 3 of the menstrual cycle) for another cycle. Results showed a significant improvement in ovulation after NAC was added to the treatment (52.1% versus 17.9%).
The number of mature follicles was non-significantly greater in the NAC group compared to the clomiphene citrate alone group. Significant improvements in mean E2 levels (pg/ml) at the time of human chorionic gonadotropine injection, serum progesterone levels (ng/ml) on days 21-23 of the cycle, and endometrial thi ckness were found in women after receiving NAC. 11.5% of women in the NAC group became pregnant. 55.4% of the subjects were found to be insulin resistant, but no significant differences were found between insulin resistant subjects and non-insulin resistant subjects with regards to ovulation rate, number of follicles, serum E2 (pg/ml), serum progesterone (ng/ml), endometrial thickness (mm), or pregnancy rate. The authors of this study conclude that, "N-Acetyl cysteine is proved effective in inducing or augmenting ovulation in polycystic ovary patients."
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